GREY UKRAINIAN BREED – A HISTORY OF GENESIS (PART 1)

Keywords: biodiversity of fauna, breeding, osteological researches, Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, early agricultural and cattle-breeding cultures, domestication, European aurochs, Ukrainian Grey breed

Abstract

The modern condition of livestock of the most countries of Europe, including Ukraine, is characterized by the expansion of commercial monobreeds due to the massive delivery of pedigree cattle breeds, in most cases the Holstein breed. In recent decades in Ukraine has been intensively commercializing domestic livestock, imposing on Ukrainian producers an unusual structure of industry development to obtain surplus profits, which has led to significant violations of the traditional way of animal husbandry. Large-scale crossbreeding of cattle livestock with imported captives results in the uptake of the domestic gene pool and dependence on foreign breeding. The illconsidered agrarian policy of the state put on the brink of extinction local and aboriginal cattle breeds, which were historically formed in various climatic and soil zones of Ukraine, which fully corresponded to their ecological and production peculiarities of breeding. The Ukrainian grey breed has been recognized on the transnational level as disappearing under the influence of the factors, one of them is human activity. Researchers studied the main breed quality – suitability for the local conditions of operation, high level of fat of milk, viability, work capacity, strength muscular constitution. However, the questions of the unambiguous path of evolution and history of formation of Ukrainian grey breed are still unclear, and this has determinate the study subject of this article. Ukrainian grey breed is the only native breed of Ukraine that has been preserved since ancient times. Considering the history of the formation of this unique breed, it is clear that it is an ancient type of animal, which was domesticated by primitive humans and reached modern times in primordial genetic condition, without being significantly influenced by foreign breeds. The special form of the genotype of the breed is characterized by the high level of balance and stability, which were formed in purity over a very long period of breeding under the influence of natural factors and pure breeding. In article was studied the history of formation of Ukrainian breed. Based on osteological, paleontological and historical sources, it has been established that cattle have for a long time been a significant part of the economy of ancient agricultural and cattle-breeding cultures, in particular the Cucuteni-Tripilliai culture. The Trypillian farm consisted of two cattle – small spindle-legged, similar to northern breeds and representatives of the Western European Neolithic breed. The latter type had related features with a wild bull aurochs, a common representative of Europe's wild fauna. The affinity of the economy and the development of the characteristic features of the Ukrainian gray breed can be traced back to Trypillian times through the period of Kievan Rus, Zaporizhzhya Sich and the present day. The formation of selective potential of Ukraine has a thousand-year history. The origin of the Ukrainian gray breed from the wild ancestor has imposed its peculiarities in the exterior, technological use of livestock and in its genetic potential. Especially the spread of species from the Carpathians to the Urals, also in Western Europe. Creating your own gene pool for cattle can be one of the factors that secure the economic independence of the state. It is promising to study the evolution of the breed to the present day and measures aimed at preserving Ukrainian biodiversity.

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Published
2020-12-27
How to Cite
Sidashova, S., Strizhak, T., Rudnik, D., & Strizhak, A. (2020). GREY UKRAINIAN BREED – A HISTORY OF GENESIS (PART 1). Zaporizhzhia Historical Review, 2(54). Retrieved from https://istznu.org/index.php/journal/article/view/935