ANTI-NUCLEAR MOVEMENT IN UKRAINE DURING THE SOVIET PERESTROIKA (the end of 1980s - 1991)

Keywords: Ukraine, nuclear power plants (NPPs), protests, anti-nuclear movement, energy-nuclear safety, non-governmental organizations

Abstract

On the base of the Soviet party archival documents, the newspaper publications and the informational messages from the Internet, the problem of the opposition of the society and the authority on the question of the energynuclear security in Ukraine at the end of 1980s – 1991 is researched in the article.

In the research, the author has set the following tasks: to reveal the process of the becoming of the anti-nuclear movement in Ukraine, to determine the forms, the specifics and the results of the opposition of the public organizations to the energy policy of the Soviet authority in Ukraine at the end of 1980s - 1991.

The growing needing the electricity in the Soviet Union has contributed to the rapid building of the nuclear power plants. By April 1986, 4 nuclear power plants have been put into operation in the USSR: Chernobyl, Zaporizhzha, Rivne and South-Ukrainian. However, after the Chernobyl catastrophe, there are the public opposition to the functioning of the nuclear-energy industry in Ukraine. The non-governmental environmental organizations and the parties such as «Green World» Association, the Green Party of Ukraine, the Crimean Association «Ecology and World», etc. are engaged in the questions of the radiation safety and the concomitant questions which are related to the functioning of the nuclear objects. The All-Ukrainian public organization «Chernobyl Union of Ukraine» has been established to provide the social and the medical help to the individuals who have suffered from the radiation. Besides, the national-democratic associations have actively joined to the anti-nuclear movement, above all the Ukrainian Language Society named after Taras Shevchenko and the People's Movement of Ukraine. The special exacerbation of the question of the energy-nuclear safety has become in the regions where NPPs have been located. The main directions of the activities have been the protests, the rallies, the gathering of the signatures for a ban of the building of the nuclear objects, the discussions around the sharp environmental question in the press. The non-governmental organizations deployed the anti-nuclear movement have made the significant contribution to the introduction by Verkhovna Rada of the USSR of the moratorium of the building of the new nuclear power plants and the increment of the power of the existing NPPs in Ukraine.

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Published
2020-12-27
How to Cite
V. , M. (2020). ANTI-NUCLEAR MOVEMENT IN UKRAINE DURING THE SOVIET PERESTROIKA (the end of 1980s - 1991). Zaporizhzhia Historical Review, 2(54). Retrieved from https://istznu.org/index.php/journal/article/view/927